“Exploring the Differences: Myopia vs Hyperopia – A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding Vision Disorders”

Myopia vs Hyperopia

Introduction

When it comes to vision impairments, myopia and hyperopia are two common conditions that affect individuals differently. Understanding the characteristics, causes, symptoms, and treatment options for myopia and hyperopia is essential for managing these refractive errors effectively. In this article, we will explore the differences between myopia and hyperopia, their definitions, causes, symptoms, and available treatments. So let’s dive in and gain a better understanding of these conditions.

What is a refractive error?

Refractive errors are common eye conditions found in all age groups. For normal image formation, it is important to have normal size of the eyeball, as well as cornea and lens. All the three factors play an important role in forming normal image on the retina. The cornea is the initial contact for the rays of light. It is important that the clarity of the cornea is maintained for correct focus of the rays to fall on retina The distortion in the shape of the cornea can lead to certain refractive problems. Similarly, any deformity in the lens can lead to refractive error.

Refractive errors can develop in all the age groups. Some people develop it in the childhood and some in the old age such as presbyopia.

Any type of refractive is treated accordingly.

what is the difference between myopia and hyperopia

Myopia definition

Myopia is an eye condition in which the person is not able to see distant/ far objects while he is able to see nearby objects. It occurs due to enlarged size of the eyeball causing the light rays to fall in front of retina or it may occur due to excessive curving of the cornea or lens

Hyperopia definition

Hyperopia is an eye condition in which the person is not able to see nearby objects while the far away objects seem clear. It occurs due to light rays falling at the back of the retina. It may also occur due to excessive flattening of the cornea or lens.

Refractive Errors Normal Vision Myopia Hyperopia Visual Simulation

CAUSES

What are the causes of myopia and hyperopia?

Is nearsightedness genetic?

Myopia and hyperopia may be caused by genetic factors, as these conditions also run in families. However other factors such as large and small eye size and shape of cornea can cause myopia and hyperopia.

SYMPTOMS

What are the symptoms of myopia and hyperopia?

The common symptoms of myopia and hyperopia includes

  • Headache
  • Blurred vision
  • Diplopia
  • Eye pain

Treatment

Treatment of Myopia and Hyperopia

How To Fix Nearsightedness

Various steps can be taken to reduce myopia, which includes use of glasses, contact lens and certain refractive procedures.

  • Glasses: In mild cases glasses are used to handle myopia. Minus lenses or concave lenses are used to bring the image over the retina.
  • Contact lenses: Those people who are not happy with glasses can use contact lenses as a treatment of myopia.
  • Refractive surgery: procedures such as LASIK and PRK are the option to reduce myopia up to -12 diopters.
  • Eyedrops: studies have shown that atropine eye drops used during outdoor activities can be beneficial in myopic patients and have shown better response in many cases.

Which lens corrects myopia?

Concave lenses, also known as diverging or negative lenses, are used to correct myopia or nearsightedness. These lenses help redirect the incoming light to focus correctly on the retina.

Can LASIK cure myopia?

LASIK, a refractive surgery procedure, can effectively correct myopia by reshaping the cornea. It provides a long-term solution and can reduce or eliminate the need for corrective lenses.

lasik surgery procedure

How can I reduce myopia naturally?

Outdoor activities are encouraged in myopic patients and studies have shown improvement of vision naturally.

Does myopia get better with glasses?

Wearing appropriate eyeglasses can significantly improve distance vision for individuals with myopia, providing clear and focused vision.

What are the treatment options for hyperopia?

Treatment of hyperopia includes use of glasses, contact lenses and refractive surgeries.

  • Glasses: Glasses can be used in hyperopic patients and are well tolerated.
  • Contact lenses: Contact lenses can be used in hyperopic as well myopic patients.
  • Refractive surgery: Can be used in hyperopic patients. Up to +6 diopters can be corrected.

Lasik for Farsightedness/Farsightedness Eye Surgery

LASIK, a popular surgical procedure for vision correction, can be performed to treat hyperopia as well. During LASIK, a laser is used to reshape the cornea, correcting the refractive error and improving vision.

How to cure farsightedness naturally?

So far there is no natural remedy to cure farsightedness.

New procedure for farsightedness?

One of the new procedures for farsightedness is clear lens extraction. In which the natural lens is replaced with an artificial lens to compensate for the refractive error.

Drops for farsightedness?

Currently, there are no eyedrops for hyperopia.

Hyperopia Meaning

Hyperopia, also known as farsightedness, is a refractive error where the eye has difficulty focusing on nearby objects, resulting in blurred vision at close distances while distance vision remains relatively clear.

Myopia vs hyperopia lens/ farsighted vs near sighted glasses

In myopia as the light rays are converged in front of retina, for this purpose minus lenses are used to take the image far behind and to focus on retina.

In hyperopia light rays are focused behind the retina, so positive lenses are used to bring the image forward.

FAQ’s

How many hours should I wear glasses for myopia?

Ideally glasses for myopia should be worn all the time.

Can myopia get better?

There are some chances that myopia will improve slowly with time

Does using phone cause myopia?

Using phone directly do not cause myopia however it can put pressure or strain on eyes.

Is myopia a plus or minus?

Myopia is labelled as minus

CONCLUSION

Myopia and hyperopia are two different eye conditions with many causes. In myopia near vision is affected while in hyperopia far vision is affected. There are many treatment options for both the conditions and it vary from patient to patient. All the options should be discussed with an ophthalmologist for good visual health.

References

  1. Holden, B. A., Fricke, T. R., Wilson, D. A., Jong, M., Naidoo, K. S., Sankaridurg, P., … & Resnikoff, S. (2016). Global prevalence of myopia and high myopia and temporal trends from 2000 through 2050. Ophthalmology, 123(5), 1036-1042. Link
  2. Morgan, I. G., French, A. N., Ashby, R. S., Guo, X., Ding, X., He, M., & Rose, K. A. (2018). The epidemics of myopia: Aetiology and prevention. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 62, 134-149. Link
  3. Gwiazda, J., Deng, L., & Manny, R. (2019). Myopia progression and risk factors: summary and recommendations from the Myopia Progression Subcommittee of the International Myopia Institute. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 39(4), 216-229. Link
  4. Vitale, S., Sperduto, R. D., & Ferris, F. L. (2009). Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971-1972 and 1999-2004. Archives of Ophthalmology, 127(12), 1632-1639. Link
  5. Kohnen, T., & Klaproth, O. K. (2016). Diagnosing and treating hyperopia in children. Expert Review of Ophthalmology, 11(3), 169-183. Link
  6. American Optometric Association. (2021). Hyperopia (Farsightedness). Link
Dr Sadia Ayaz
Dr Sadia Ayaz

I am an ophthalmologist and eye surgeon

Articles: 47

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